DEGRADING THE PERSISTENT POLLUTANTS
Large volumes of PFCs have been produced since the 1950s and in recent years production has shifted more towards short-chain compounds and perfluoroether carboxylic and sulfonic acids, which already has been reflected in environmental waters. However, these specific compounds represent only a fraction of the PFASs marketed globally. Some production has also been replaced by other highly fluorinated compounds such as fluorotelomer alcohols that can slowly degrade to PFOA.
The high production volume of PFCs has led to widespread distribution of the substance in the
environment, particularly in water where they are most readily transported. The chemical stable properties combined with PFCs solubility in water have contributed to the detection of PFASs throughout the aquatic environment, including in surface waters, wastewater and drinking water.
PFOA has a negative effect on the reproductive organs and is suspected to be carcinogenic to humans and is also rated as very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) and therefore tacked on the EU candidate list of substances of very high concern.
The chemically very stable compounds of PFCs complicate any potential decomposition process of the substance. Various methods have been investigated in efforts to decompose and/or remove PFCs from polluted water, and strong oxidizing agents need to be used.
In efforts to reach a sufficiently high oxidation potential a combination of different Advanced Oxidation Process
It is of environmental and social importance to effectively decompose and remove PFCs in drinking water treatment.
Removal of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from tap water using heterogeneously catalyzed ozonation
(Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology)
PFC compounds can be reduced, degraded or completely removed by various methods as listed below and in many cases a combination of techniques is the ultimate solution to solve the problem.
To break down PFC compounds in water one typically needs stronger than "ordinary" oxidants.
Advanced oxidation techniques, combining different oxidants, have proven to be effective with the right
mixing technique. A combination, of for example, ozone and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or special catalysts raises the oxidation potential which enables the degradation of PFCs.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a simple and traditional purification method already used in many water treatment systems.
Our RENA RO systems can remove the contaminants
before it is delivered to the households in the affected municipalities. The reverse osmosis technology, which is used, efficiently separates salts from the water and makes this method suitable for that reduction of PFAA-pollutants in drinking water.
Ozonetech offers a variety of state-of-the-art turn-key water treatment systems based on our own ozone technology combined with our in-house developed AOP technology to decompose and remove PFCs in water.
Reducing or eliminating PFCs is a complex task and requires a tailored full-scale solution.
The design process starts with our engineers’ pilot study resulting in a setup including possible critical parameters and best available technologies (BAT) to