Pharmaceutical residues in wastewater
A HEALTH RISK THAT CAN BE ELIMINATED
EFFECTIVELY AND SUSTAINABLE?
Only a fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) can be removed with traditional technologies, leading to harmful effects on flora, fauna and ultimately human beings.
Paracetamol (N-acetyl-4-aminophenol) is a group of medicines (e.g. Alvedon) found in mild analgesics or non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs that are sold in large quantities. They are commonly used for reduction of pain and fever symptoms. The projected annual world production of paracetamol is about 145,000 tons. The paracetamol molecule consists of a benzene ring core, substituted by one hydroxyl group and the nitrogen atom of an acetamide. More info about the paracetamol degradation with ozone treatment can be found below.
Codeine (3-Methylmorphine) is a narcotic medication (e.g. Oramorph) used to treat moderate pain and cough. It consists of an aromatic ring and a quaternary carbon atom linked to a tertiary amine group by two other carbon atoms. This chemical characteristic is also known as the morphine rule. The molecule consists of a total of five rings, out of which three are in the same plane.
Diclofenac 2-(2, 6-dichloranillino) phenylacetic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (i.e. Voltaren) that is easily available in medical outlets and hundreds of tons are sold worldwide every year. It consists of two adjacent aromatic rings, with one ring bearing a carboxylate and the other one, a phenyl ring, binds perpendicular to the top of aromatic ring with two ortho-chloro groups.
Propofol (2,6-Bis (1-methylethyl) phenol) is a stable molecule and an intravenous anesthetic agent used in maintenance of general anesthesia (e.g. Propoven). Propofol consists of a benzene ring and an isopropyl group. Propofol, like the other compounds mentioned above, is effectively degraded to below detection levels with ozone treatment. Propofol in particular has shown a first order reaction in type in a typical wastewater effluent from pharmaceutical industry.
Large quantities of micropollutants are released directly from hospitals and pharmaceutical production plants in high concentrations. Still the majority of all API residues can be traced to municipal wastewater treatment plants.
Pharmaceutical residues can be treated directly at the source in a containerized solution or turnkey system,
depending on the client need.
On-site treatment of pharmaceutical residues (green) eliminates the need for high-cost transportation and offsite destruction (blue).
IN-HOUSE ENGINEERING SERVICES
Each and every system leaving our production facility has gone through the same design steps. All steps are carried out by our in-house experts.
Pilot projects. This unique service enables complete customization based on the specific water quality.
CFD. We use computational fluid dynamics to ensure the maximum treatment capacity of oxidation technology.
System design. We customize the complete solution using a number of technologies such as ozone, carbon filtration and advanced oxidation processes (AOP), fine-tuned with CAD.
Manufacturing and quality control.
The designed system is constructed and assembled by Ozonetech. As an original equipment manufacturer, we validate performance and operation before shipping.
Installation. We offer complete installation services when needed and full assistance throughout the process.
Commissioning. As the system has been delivered and installed, we optimize the operation based on local site conditions for a smooth operating experience in order to reach maximum efficiency and lowest possible operating costs.
Example of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for ensuring maximum reaction rates. Our CFD services are one of many key aspects to efficiently designing an API removal system.
- Perform a proper analysis of API concentrations and water quality to determine the dissolved ozone concentration and type of system.
- Make a careful choice of suitable pretreatment and post-oxidation treatment methods to avoid inadequate results or excessive maintenance.
- Choose the proper combination technology to avoid high investment and operating costs.
- Choose a turnkey solution from a supplier with extensive engineering and supply expertise.
There re different kinds of chemical reactions. The order for any chemical reaction is defined as the reaction rate dependency of the concentration of the reactants. Representative graphs for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd reaction orders are displayed below:
It is important to determine the reaction kinetics in order to scale a full-scale ozone treatment system. Ozonetech offers pilot project services to determine the specific treatment requirements for specific wastewater streams, including pharmaceutical plants and hospitals wastewater. Contact us for more information!